Mahogany Obsidian: Meanings, Powers and Crystal Properties

Mahogany Obsidian is also called mountain mahogany, is a crystal gemstone used since antiquity. This Obsidian has iron inclusions that create the mahogany-colored stripes and swirls, similar to mahogany furniture. It is produced naturally from volcanic activity when lava rich in feldspar and quartz is cooled rapidly for crystals to form glass.

Contents show

Even though it is created naturally, it is not considered a true mineral because of its complex composition and non-crystalline structure. It is used for decorative purposes and made smooth and sharp surgical blades and arrowheads due to its lack of cleavage and sharp edges when broken.

Mahogany Obsidian Meaning and Symbolism

Meaning of Mahogany Obsidian

Mahogany Obsidian is also called red obsidian stone or mountain mahogany. It is a semi-precious gemstone material that looks deep black with red streaks. This natural obsidian glass bears the red coloration likely due to the inclusion of trapped hematite or iron within the crystalline formation.

obsidian gemstones can be found anywhere in volcanic activities within the last 5000 years. It is relatively a common stone as volcanic activity is widespread. The most common sources of these stones are South America, the United States, Afghanistan, Mexico, and Japan.

Mahogany Obsidian (Meaning in Legends)

This particular glass stone is considered to pierce into the darkness to reveal the truth itself due to its sharpness. 

It was published as “Mirror” by the Mayan Prophet for its Crystal ball reading and its way of prophesizing the future.

The Aztects framed the flat sheets of Obsidian into scrying mirrors. Then, due to its magical properties, ancient peoples created arrowheads and axes with it.

It is considered a strongly protective stone. It forms a shield against negativity, providing a grounding cord from the base chakra to the Earth’s center, creating space for strength, courage, and stability.

Mahogany Obsidian (Meaning as Birthstone)

Mahogany Obsidian brings the gift of prophecy to the people born with the astrological sign Libra and Sagittarius. People born under these zodiacs are usually deeply connected to this glass stone for no apparent reason. It beautifully complements the Libras and Sagittarius with their power and positivity.

Mahogany Obsidian (Symbolism)

All crystal gemstones, including mahogany Obsidian, has a specific vibration number like all other matters. This gemstone contains a frequency of vibration of the number 4, and this particular number symbolizes devotion, pragmatism, and loyalty. The number 4 is the indicator of the root of practicality and conscientiousness. This brick red stone emanates intense energies and makes one more focused, from personal to professional. It also makes one more patient allowing grabbing better discipline, integrity, and self-control.

Mahogany Obsidian (Zodiac Sign)

Mahogany obsidian is associated with two zodiac signs- Libra and Sagittarius. It activates 3 of the lower chakras – Root Chakra, Sacral and the Power Center. Hematite is found in Mahogany Obsidian, thus it resonates twice with Earth, anchoring, protecting, and realigning the Sacral and Root Chakras.

Libras are generally extroverted, self-assured, fair-minded, cozy, peace-loving, and friendly. It plays an immense role in enhancing and solidifying these qualities. It encourages growth, strength, sexuality, courage, creativity, passion, stability and safeguard.

Sagittarians are highly discreet and even secretive with power and darkness. Sagittarians use this brick red stone either to get rid of negative energy or even excess energy or to protect themselves from their volatile nature and dark tendencies or who wish to harm themselves.

How do mystical powers play a significant role in Mahogany Obsidian?

The mystical properties of mahogany Obsidian are existent from ancient civilizations, most notably in Mesoamerica, for its reflective of polishing into mirrors. This volcanic rock acts as a bridge that connects the spiritual world to the physical healing world. It heavily affects on daily, ritual, and spiritual lives of individuals.

It is considered a deep grounding stone that allows individuals to focus in the growth of their spiritual life within the full spectrum of mortal human life. It helps in examining unsolved matters and harmful attitudes inhibiting one’s personal and spiritual growth.

Mahogany Obsidian is a meditation gemstone containing meditative powers. This crystal has an aura of spirit and positive energy. It acts as the sword against negative points for the wearer from any negativity. It keeps the wearer grounded and doesn’t let them feel gagged and bound. It makes the excess energy flow to the ground and create own convictions by letting it absorb the Earth.

Ultimately, it improves lifestyle by broadening the mind and allowing individuals to take advantage of abundance, ignoring the scarcity to bring prosperity. It clears blockages of lower Chakras, provides stability and stimulates the flow of creative energies and complete expression of one’s sexuality.

Mahogany Obsidian Meaning when worn according to western astrology?

The simplest and common way to wear this gemstone is to wear it in an ornament like pendant, necklaces, bracelet, earrings, rings, etc. However, this brown stone can easily be shaped into any possible form and turned into classy jewelry.

People carry this brown stone’s jewelry because of the positive energy it reflects. The person’s mood often depends on what they are assuming or wearing. An optimistic stone indeed brings happiness, good health, own convictions, wealth and prosperity. People often use it to remove energy blocks and violate boundires and focus new goals and purposes for life. 

Individuals who suffer from pain can wear this brown stone to get relief and enhance  circulation. It is also helpful for anyone suffering from depression or addiction. Besides, anyone suffering from a sexual or sensual disorder can wear this brick red stone.

The most important use of this volcanic rock is usually during meditation. If one carries or adores this stone while meditating, they’ll feel mentally and physically relaxed and healed. This is because it acts as a medicine that is not consumed through the mouth but felt through energies.

This magical stone is connected to the vibration with numbers 1 and 4. The number 1 attributes to positivity, strength, self-reliance, love etc. And the number 4 denotes patience, devotion, dignity, endurance, loyalty, self-control etc. 

Mahogany Obsidian Healing Properties

Mahogany Obsidian Physical Healing

It is believed that Mahogany Obsidian plays a vital role in attaining a healthy life by strengthening the liver, kidney and all other lower organs. Just imagine how amazing this brick red stone is! It is a known to be a protective stone which guards against spiritual and energetic attacks.

It helps to stimulate growth by encouraging strength in times of need and relieving tension.. It is popular amongst the metaphysical healers for supporting detoxification, reducing physical stress, stimulate growth  and stand against all odds. It is also highly recommended to anyone willing to work through physical issue disorders such as anorexia, obesity, bulimia, unusual physical handicaps, etc. also In physical healing it stand in detoxifying organs and tissues.

Source: ShutterStock

Mahogany Obsidian Emotional Healing

This Obsidian is a comforting and alluring stone to work with to deal with emotional traumas, wounds, and aches. It will assist you to remove feelings of unworthiness. It can bring up unconscious memories of abuse, shame and guilt and beliefs about own worth. It also enables to work through all incidents that negatively affect individuals and then undertake actual resolution.

Furthermore, it helps to get rid of harmful body images and strengthen motivation by asking one to release and believe own inert beauty. Finally, its gentle and soothing energy gives comfort when an individual feels down. 

Spiritual Healing of this Protective Stone

Mahogany obsidian is an intense grounding stone that helps anchor spiritual life within the full spectrum of mortal human life. It enables one to stay self-centered and approach with an integrated and holistic attitude towards life. It includes caring for spiritual, physical and emotional needs in appropriate proportion.

It also makes it possible to recognize both body-mind and mind-body connectivity better. The mountain mahogany also protects against other people’s negative psychic energy and psychic attacks from other entities. It also unlashes opportunities to improve financial health and wellbeing.

It  is an excellent meditation tool for anyone trying to eliminate bad energies which can harm and stimulate growth on all levels.It work as a shield to save us from mental, emotional and psychic attacks. 

Mahogany Obsidian Metaphysical Properties 

Metaphysical PropertiesProperties
MeaningDue to its mahogany patches, it has got its name from the Mahogany tree.
ZodiacLibra
SymbolismStone of reflection
BirthstoneLibra and Scorpio- for protection.
ChakraSolar Plexus, Root & Sacral Chakras

Places and location:

The mountain mahogany is a beautiful natural glass stone used to absorb negativity in space. It can be placed anywhere like a room, home or business and workplace.

Mahogany Obsidian at Home

Mahogany Obsidian is perfect for keeping the house protected and balanced. The obsidian stone should be placed close to the entrance or foyer of the house so that anyone stepping inside the door will leave their half-truths and deceit behind the door and enter the house with a pure heart. Placing the stone in the doorways makes it possible to activate the protection properties of the stone. Thus, it enhances energy flow and strengthens family bonding, friendship and love relationships.

Mahogany Obsidian at work

Workplace represents career. Mahogany obsidian is an excellent stone for focus with balancing work and protecting the workspace as protective energy in work life. For more protective energy in work life, it can be placed in an office desk, creative art space, or home office. Placing this Obsidian on the workstation or home office offers safety from all negative vibes coming in the way. It allows working on self-improvement rather than blocking on energies or other people.

Mahogany Obsidian at work
Source: ShutterStock

 In-home Feng Shui

The color black is connected to the water element in Feng Shui. Water symbolizes wisdom, depth and fluidity. It revives hopes in the majesty of life. It helps to breathe into the flames of the mind and see the brighter side of life. When someone wants to inherit these qualities in themselves, they might benefit from working with this Obsidian.

Water also has a connection with career and social networking. By using these stones, these specific areas of life can be enhanced. Some people use this volcanic rock when they needed or when need to remove energy blocks. It gives new life towards purposes and goals. It also helps entering new life by reliving tension, new aura into your relationship.

Pregnant women and babies

As the mountain mahogany is associated with the sacral chakra, its properties are primarily connected to the reproductive system. This is why it stimulates sexuality and strengthens body parts that help nurture babies. It is also considered soothing during birth, and it helps the dispel poisons.

Romantic relationships

Mahogany obsidian help in boosting love and marriage relationships with its soft and gentle energy. It helps in eliminating emotional distress to protect and strengthen the aura of relationship. It is simultenously protecting against repetitive difficulties.  It reduces negative emotional patterns that impact how individuals perform as a partner. This is a great stone to help reclaim your power and reconnect.

Children

Mahogany Obsidian develops courage and strength, especially in children who are controlled by their fears and experiencing a lack of self-confidence.  It helps to relieve tension, and strengthen the connections with family. Mountain mahogany boosts up confidence that is brought up to the surface. 

People dealing with trauma and crisis

Mahogany Obsidian helps overcome the trauma that one has previously experienced in life. It gives the feeling safe and a vibe that one will not share those feelings again.

This stone’s energies will also assist you in demonstrating your unique authority when it comes to protecting what you own.  In addition, it has extensive healing properties that eliminate the feelings of shame and humiliation that have created a lousy impression in others. 

Mahogany Obsidian and Numerology

Each crystal gemstone vibrates at a specific frequency to a particular number. For example, mountain mahogany vibrates at the frequency 4. The number 4 represents devotion, pragmatism, and loyalty.

People with this specific numerology number are fiercely solid, stable and confident individuals. The crystals quarts with numerology number 4 help balance energy and promote wellbeing. This Obsidian resonates with Earth and grounds and protects individuals with its gentle power. It is considered a stabilizing stone as it. 

Mahogany Obsidian and Numerology
Source: ShutterStock

Mahogany Obsidian Beauty Products

Mahogany Obsidian Facial Roller Massager is one of the best natural skincare tools with ultra-smooth rolling action that tightens and de-puffs facial skin to give the best results. It is excellent for calming and softening skin. It minimizes the appearance of pores and prevents breakouts.

It has a strong vibration that removes all build-up stresses and self-doubt. It also improves blood circulation, resulting in a better skin tone, reduces puffiness, and eliminates the look of fine lines and wrinkles.

Mahogany Obsidian Shapes and Forms

Mahogany Obsidian Plates

Mahogany obsidian plates have a wide range of applications. For example, the mountain mahogany Obsidian Stone is designed into Circle Disk Round Plate and is widely used as a Feng Shui Mirror for Home & Office Decors. Besides, these are also used as a crafting component to create another item. 

Mahogany Obsidian Points

The red obsidian point is ideal for decorating home & office, meditating, Reiki, collecting, Feng shui, healing, manifestation, chakra balancing, energy magnification and more. It can be a great item to gift the loved ones on any special occasion like birthday, new year, or special day 

Mahogany Obsidian Spheres

The raw mahogany obsidian stones are carved and polished to a high shine to make a mahogany obsidian sphere. The beautiful black with brick red and colored mahogany brown patches makes it look more attractive, reflective and elegant. The mountain mahogany obsidian sphere escalates a cloaked mystical quality to whatever space is occupied.

Mahogany Obsidian and Chakras

The energies of red Obsidian connect to the base and sacral chakras. As it combines the two crystals, black Obsidian and hematite, it creates a powerful energy that can connect the holder with the Earth. 

Out of the seven traditional chakras, the Root Chakra is the first chakra from the bottom, located near the perineum and responsible for our most primal instincts. It is a stone that controls the momentum in life and introduces a balance by activating the Base Chakra. It also leads to independence, courage, stability and strength in one’s life by removing tension.

 The sacral chakra is the second chakra that resonates with love, sexuality, and sensuality. This volcanic rock is said to infuse one’s life with love and affection by aligning the Sacral ChakraSacral Chakra: Exploring 25+ Powerful Healing Properties REVEALED and boosting sexuality and sensuality. For this reason, it is widely used for improving relationships and giving couples therapy. 

Mahogany Obsidian and Wealth

In case of financial distress, mahogany obsidian is something one must get in their pocket as it unlatches opportunities to enhance  the economic conditions and increase wealth. It enhances the ability to generate income and wealth for individuals. Astrologers consider this crystal lucky to bring peace and prosperity by transforming lousy luck into good and are particularly useful for financial gains. They consider wearing a mahogany necklaces or any ornaments is one of the best ways to attract wealth and good fortune. 

Mahogany Obsidian and Wealth

How do you use Mahogany Obsidian for protection?

Mahogany obsidian is a gemstone for protection and grounding from its core. It gives ultimate protection against negativity by acting as a shield against all negative psychic attacks. It cleans and purifies the soul by releasing all negative patterns and energetic implants and the negative energies that disrupt the flow of creative energies. It averts the negative energies and creates space for strength, courage, and stability. 

What is the color energy of Mahogany Obsidian?

Due to hematite or Magnetite, the mahogany Obsidian is black with brick red and colored mahogany brown streaks. The black color corresponds to the root chakra, grounding, and shield. It is associated with purity of spirit, protection, cleansing and detoxing. It plays an essential role in blocking negative emotions, strengthen  self motivation, protecting negative energy, and connecting to the Earth through the root chakra. The red color in it also has a unique and symbolic meaning. The red represents nobility, purity, and passion and facilitates personal growth. 

Most Popular Crystal Healing Techniques

Adherents of crystal healing techniques state that crystals act as conduits for healing, attracts positive and healing energy flows and repels negative, disease-causing energy. Though doctors and scientists do not support this alternative treatment therapy, it has gained incredible popularity in recent years. 

The most popular crystal healing techniques are therapy using- 

  • Clear quartz 
  • Obsidian
  • Rose quartz 
  • Citrine 
  • Turquoise 
  • Amethyst 
  • Tiger’s eye.
  • Moonstone 
  • Bloodstone 
  • Sapphire 
  • Ruby

Simple Ways to Use Crystals for Anxiety

Three easy and simple ways to connect to crystal energy to help anxiety are can be as follows-

  • One charming and simple way to tap the crystal energy is to wear the stone as any form of jewelry like necklaces or bracelets. It will give comfort in case of anxiety disorders. 
  • Another way to use a crystal to get rid of anxiety is to place it in a meditation area or simply mediate by holding it to develop a tangible connection to the crystals.
  • Placing the stones anywhere in the house to benefit from its gentle energy. It is also work as a protective stone which is used for safeguard from emotional attacks. It will safeguard you against people who wish you harm or suffering.. Placing it in any corner of the room will bring love, stimulate growth of inner satisfaction and peace to the space. 

Make a Health Crystals Body Grid

A crystal grid is made by forming a pattern inspired by sacred geometry and placing a robust health and wellness stone inside the crystal with intention at each intersection. The process of constructing the crystal grid and its corresponding network of power stones offers a reflective/meditative experience. It allows shifting the energy field around consciously. 

The process to make crystal body grid:

  • Being specific about intention
  • Choosing and preparing the crystal
  • Setting the scenario around the grid
  • Assembling the crystal grid

Mahogany Obsidian and Feng Shui

In Feng shui, this gemstone connects the water and fire element. Black is connected to water representing wisdom, depth, and fluidity and red are connected to the fire element that symbolizes fame. It is a great idea to use this colored mahogany brown stone to incorporate these qualities in life. 

One of the simplest ways to incorporate any crystal or stone into Feng Shui is to find the stone’s corresponding color in the Feng Shui Bagua map. For example, the color black is connected to the career element, and red is used to protect and clear negative energy. So basically, in Feng shui, Mahogany Obsidian is used to manifest and activate wealth, luck and prosperity.

Best Crystal to Combine with Mahogany Obsidian

Astrologers suggest that silver is the best metal to use with this gemstone as the combination reflects cool, relaxing vibes. 

Sugilite, Tibetian Black Quartz and Black Tourmaline can be worn along with this crystal. These stones work harmoniously to protect from psychic attacks by eliminating all the emotional blockages, including negative energies and bad memories, by increasing focus, self-awareness, self-confidence, and self-acceptance.

Source: ShutterStock

Mahogany Obsidian and meditation

For anyone working getting rid of distraction and stimulate growth, mahogany obsidian is just a perfect tool to aid their meditation. It cleanses one’s aura and protects from future incoming negative vibrations like distress or discomfort.

There are various methods to meditate with mahogany obsidians. Most popular are mahogany grids, in the bath, mahogany on chakras etc.

It  is a stone of development. Meditating with Obsidian can help us get centered, feel present, have clear energy, and connect to the Earth and our bodies. It can be placed in the hand or simply anywhere in the meditating area.

To get into the mediation, only two things are needed. Firstly, it is not even necessary to have a mahogany gemstone physically. Visualizing it will also work. And lastly, a comfortable seat is required. It can be any rug, mat or simply the floor. 

Steps for Meditating with Crystals

The basic steps to meditate with crystals are

  • selecting the type of crystals and setting an intention
  • Cleansing the crystals 
  • Grounding and asking the stone for permission to use its energy
  • Watching the timing to ensure if it is the right fit
  • Closing the practice

Cleansing method & techniques of Mahogany Obsidian

The obsidians act on an energy level and send natural vibration to the world. As the mahogany Obsidian changes several hands before reaching the ultimate user, it may grab energies misaligning with the intention of purchase within the transit. So for working with Mahogany Obsidian, it needs to be cleansed and programed with intention.

The more often the stone is used, the more negative energy it absorbs. So the crystals needs to be cleansed and recharged regularly to restore it to its natural state. 

If the stone feels heavier than usual, it is time to clean it. The mahogany obsidian stone should feel energetically and physically lighter when touched. Its able to heal naturally and help to address ailments and accomplish physical healing. This colored mahogany brown stone helps to cleanse one’s aura while also giving protection from future incoming vibrations that could cause distress.

First, to use the mahogany Obsidian, the intentions need to be set, ensuring all negative energies are cleansed. Next, one needs to find the appropriate method to clean the crystals as what works best may not work for someone else. 

Here are some ways how the mahogany Obsidian can be cleansed.

  • Holding the mahogany obsidian under running water and then drying it completely
  • Meditate over the stones to set the intention for washing them by visualizing (born in hand to set the intention)
  • Placing the mahogany Obsidian overnight under the light of the full moon 
  • Submerging the stone in a saltwater solution for a day 
  • The stone needs to be buried in the garden and left for 2 days 
  • Placing the rock under the rainstorm shower
  • burning incense or herbs over mahogany obsidian to cleanse and recharge it with smoke

Cleaning mistakes to avoid

Some common mistakes that are made while cleaning the mahogany Obsidian are pointed below-

  • Lack of a regular cleaning program.
  • Abrasive tools or utensils that will damage the polished surface  must not be used
  • They should not be exposed to extreme hot or cold water as they can break. While cleansing, it should be ensured that the water temperature must not exceed 40° C (104º F). 
  • Not rinsing well to remove soapy residue while cleaning with soapy water
  • It is not recommended to use ultrasonic cleaners and steamers

How does Mahogany Obsidian work for disease?

Mahogany obsidian has crystal healing properties and supports physical health and total wellbeing. Using it, various physical pains in any part of the body can be healed. It relieves pain aches, heals bruises and wounds and eases tense muscles. This brown stone also improves blood circulation allowing the kidney and liver to function better. It speeds up the recovery of outer injuries. It also makes it possible to get rid of the free radicals. Mahogany Obsidian is also said to facilitate digestion and detoxification.

Mahogany Obsidian Physical Properties

Properties PropertiesProperties
OriginMahogany tree.
Names UsedObsidian
ColorReddish Brown with mottlings of Black
StreakNone
LusterGlassy
Diaphaneity (Transparency)Translucent to Opaque
CleavageConchoidal
TenacityBrittle
Density (Weight)2.33 – 3.00
Diagnostic PropertiesConchoidal
Chemical CompositionSilicon dioxide
Crystal StructureNone
UsesJewelry
OccurrenceJewelry: Pendants, rings, bracelets
Hardness (Mohs Hardness) 5 to 6

History

The meaning of the name is ancient, and there are several possible implications for this name. First, the name of Obsidian initially came from its beautiful reddish-brown color that resembles mahogany wood. 

Who first discovered Mahogany Obsidian?

Mahogany obsidian was named after a Roman named Obsuis, who discovered a similar stone. 

Where does Mahogany Obsidian originate?

The exact origin is unknown, but the Native Americans discovered most mahogany obsidians for knapping and creating arrowheads, mirrors and masks. 

Is there poison in Mahogany Obsidian?

Mahogany obsidians can be toxic at times. But apart from cutting or harming oneself with it intentionally, it can do little harm to people.

Myths & lore of Mahogany Obsidian?

This crystal can be found in areas where there has been volcanic activity. When near surface or surface magma movement affects a sudden or continuous release of energy, it is called a volcanic activities. Therefore, there are available in distinct parts of the planet.

Though mahogany obsidians are found by accident during mining black obsidians, it can be efficiently mined once the source is located. South America, Japan, Mexico, Afghanistan, and parts of the United States are some notable places to find this gemstone.

Currently, the deposit of mahogany obsidians is abundant in Japan, Afghanistan, Mexico, Brazil and the USA. But it is probably not popular in the African continent. Therefore, it is assumed that a massive deposit of the red Obsidian is still to be discovered.  

Mahogany Obsidian Colours

The stone is Black with brick red or brown (mahogany) streaks. The black color represents water that evokes power, mystery, and calm. The red color denotes blood and fire and is associated with love, passion, lust, sexuality, sensitivity, romance, fame, willpower, rage etc.

How many colors of Mahogany Obsidian are there?

The particular stone is naturally black and has a glassy texture and a vitreous luster. Although black is the most common color of Obsidian, it can also be found in several other shades, usually for appearance.

  • Blood Red Obsidian
  • Red Snowflake Obsidian
  • Red Ribbon Obsidian
  • Red Obsidian Raw

The most common color of Mahogany Obsidian

The most common color combination of mountain mahogany is black, and brown swirled together. Though it is also called red obsidians, it is rarely solid red instead features swirls and stripes throughout the body. But some argue that mahogany obsidian is more of a sandy brown than a red. The value of the Obsidian mahogany increases for specimens with rare colors and different appearance.

Mahogany Obsidian Occurrence

Obsidian is a glass that forms naturally as an extrusive igneous rock. Extrusive igneous rock is generated on the Earth’s surface from lava, which is magma that has risen from beneath the surface. Mahogany obsidian is a volcanic glass formed when lava extruded and volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth. Therefore, it can be created anywhere where volcanic activities were existent.

Usually, Mahogany obsidian is found accidentally while mining black obsidians. However, shoveling it in rough form is relatively easy once spotted. Though there are abundant traces of obsidians in various parts of the world, likely, there is still a massive amount of red Obsidian undiscovered in many parts of the world.

Mahogany Obsidian Varieties

Mahogany obsidian is also called red Obsidian. Various types of mahogany Obsidian can be found based on color discrimination like Blood Red Obsidian, red snowflakes obsidian, red ribbon obsidian, redraw Obsidian. 

It’s rare to find out natural red mahogany obsidian. Most of the red-colored Obsidian turns out to be glass.

Conclusion

If you are looking for a protective stone and supportive stone, then there is no stone best than mahgony obsidian. Imagine a fine piece of mahogany furniture that gleams like glass–that’s mahogany obsidian. Due to the enormous variety, benefits and usages of the mahogany obsidian crystal, any crystal enthusiast would love to have it in their possession.

It’s a powerful and supportive stone that can help you combat negativity, gain deep insights from dreams, ground energy, or do deep inner physical healing, plus refresh your feelings too. As a result, it will push people away from the shadows of lies, illusions, emotional blockages, and anything else behind facades of fear by sweeping away those veils and inviting positivity to step over.

Danish Hameed

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.